In contemporary times, the terms “Rifle” and “Carbine” are used interchangeably. Though both these firearms have the same purpose, they have a lot of nuanced differences that make them unique from each other.
In this article we will be looking into Rifles and Carbines in an elaborate manner, and also compare Carbine vs. Rifle to get a head to head comparison of the unique features of both these firearms.
What is a Rifle?
A rifle is a firearm, comprised of a long barrel, which has been designed for precise and powerful shooting. Inside the barrel of a rifle there is a spiral design of grooves which cuts into the bore wall.
Rifles are one of the most popular firearms around. The popularity is so extensive that in modern times, the term “rifle” is used to refer to handheld, long ranged weapons.
In order to focus on the accuracy of the rifle, the firearm has been constructed to be held with both hands and to be held against the shoulders of the user via the buttstock of the rifle. This helps in achieving stability when shooting. Rifles are used extensively in activities such as: hunting, wars, self-protection, to maintain law and order and also in sports that include firearms.
The traditional rifles fire only one projectile or bullet upon a single press of the trigger. Contemporary rifles are classified into: semi-automatic and automatic, single shot and bolt action. Apart from the automatic rifles, all the other types are limited to shooting only one bullet for each pull of the trigger. Automatic rifles are able to discharge greater than one bullet per trigger pull.
The automatic rifles used in modern times might even overlap with machine guns when it comes to their design and functions. Several machine guns of light weight have been created modelled upon of some prevailing automatic rifle designs.
Some of the most popular rifles in the world are: Ruger No.1, Remington 7600, Marlin 1895, Ruger Precision Rifle and Ruger AR-556.
Types of Rifles
In modern times, a lot of progressive engineering techniques have been poured into the construction of rifles. Even though there are a plethora of ways to construct them, all rifles fall into certain categories that are defined by their method of operation, rather than on how they look.
Some of these types of rifles are described below:
Break Action Rifles
Break Action Rifles are the most basic form of rifles. They are very rare to find in modern times. These rifles are reliable and don’t attract a lot of attention. A break action rifle’s operation is very simple and straightforward.
Most of the rifles that fall under this category have a single barrel. The firearm also adds a layer of protection when introducing someone new to the world of shooting.
Lever Action Rifles
One of the pioneer designs of rifles that came into the market was that of the lever action rifle. Compared to other rifles, the precision of level action rifles is lower, and they also weigh more. On the contrary, they have higher capacity for holding cartridges, because of their heavy bodies. This is beneficial in a lot of situations.
Bolt Action Rifles
Bolt action rifles are one of the most popular rifles amongst snipers and marksmen. These rifles make use of a small handle protruding from the right-hand side of the firearm.
Following a very elementary procedure, that follows the sequence: ascending, reversing and forward- the user can discharge an already worn out cartridge, stack a new bullet from the magazine and then shut the chamber for discharging.
This action is one most widely used actions globally, mostly due to its efficiency, toughness and precision. One of the most popular bolt action rifles is the bolt action 700.
Being a very modern innovation, semi-automatic rifles have become highly popular among snipers and other sharp shooters all around the globe. When it comes to a semi-automatic rifle, all the user needs to do is only change the position of the action into a firing position. This has to be done only once.
Subsequently, the action will discharge the old round automatically. Upon every pulling and upon releasing of the trigger, it will reload a new round.
Often, semi-automatic rifles can be launched quicker than most other types of rifles. This allows the rifle to eject higher number of rounds per minute. You can fix the mechanical failures of the weapon on your own.
You can find the mechanism of pump-action rifles in various types of rifle designs. The mechanism takes advantage of a slide mechanism that is constructed centering the barrel to send out an old cartridge, and at the same time load a new cartridge.
Among the biggest advantages of this particularmechanism is that the user controls it with their secondary hand, and not their primary, gun controlling hand. This can eventually lead to increased number of fire rates and enhanced precision. Pump-action rifles are capable of holding a large number of rounds.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Rifles
We have discussed a variety of rifles in this article. One of the most popular rifles is the bolt action rifle. Now we will look at some advantages and disadvantages of this particular firearm. They are as follows:
Below are the advantages of Rifles.
The reliability and dependability of bolt action rifles is widely known. As per most people, the reliability is the biggest advantage this rifle has over the other rifles. The main reason behind this strong reliability is the simple design of the rifle. As it is devoid of complications, not much can go wrong with it.
Though it is still debatable, many sharp shooters say that the bolt action rifle, arguably, has the highest accuracy amongst all other rifles. Rifles are already renowned for their accuracy in long distances.
The key factor behind this high accuracy is the simplicity in construction of the rifle. Due to less complications and intricacies, the firearm is devoid of unnecessary movements that might hamper the weapon’s trajectory.
Easy to use
Due to the simplistic design in the construction of the rifle, it is very user friendly. You don’t have to be a veteran shooter, or have a background in anything mechanical to understand the mechanism of the weapon. The maintenance of the weapon is thus relatively easier in comparison to other weapons of the same category.
Also, the lack of moving parts makes the firearm very light. This low weight is very helpful in maneuvering the weapon, especially if you are a novice user. The low weight also assists in getting into shooting positions rather easily.
Bolt actions rifles offer very high versatility. The ammunitions for this rifle are available in various calibers. Choosing one specific type of caliber won’t limit your use to only that specific ammunition. You will always have the option to shift to a new caliber. They also offer higher scope variety.
Easier to Purchase
Bolt action rifles are very easy to purchase. They are available at most gun shops, and they come at a price lower than semi-automatic rifles. Also, the manufacturing cost of bolt action rifles is low.
Other rifles, especially semi-automatic rifles, are harder to find. Even if they are found, they are difficult to purchase at the right price.
No matter how efficient bolt action rifles may be, sometimes shooters prefer other types of rifles over them due to their high recoil intensity. The recoil of larger caliber can be quite significant, and damaging. Sometimes this is the only factor that persuades shooters to avoid using the bolt action.
Low Rate of Fire
Bolt action rifles have lower rate of fires than other rifles- particularly the semi-automatic rifles. No matter how good you become at operating the bolt action rifle, you can never quite overlook the higher rate of fire of the semi-automatic rifle.
Rifles in general have bodies. This is because of their long barrel, and their heavy stock. This heaviness makes it rather troublesome to carry and handle rifles.
Rifles also require the user to adjust their body to the position of the gun, rather than adjusting the positioning of the weapon.
Inability to Make Adjustments
The stocks of rifles are non-collapsible. As a result, it is not possible for the user to adjust the shape of the firearm to cater to their specific needs. They have to make do with the fundamental traits of the rifle.
What is a Carbine?
A carbine is a long-barreled firearm that has a barrel shorter than a standard rifle. Most carbines are shortened versions of full-length rifles. Some carbines shoot the same types of ammunitions as rifles, while others shoot the same types of ammunition as pistols.
The smaller and lighter body of carbines make them very easy to use and handle. Carbines are usually issued to high-mobility troops, as well as to artillery, logistical and non-infantry personnel. In other words, these firearms are issued to personnel who don’t require full-sized equipment. For a firearm to be considered as a carbine, it does not require a stock or an arm brace.
The easiest difference to detect between rifles and carbines is that the range and muzzle power of carbines is much less than that of rifles.
Types of Carbines
There are three basic types of carbines:
Rifle Carbines are fully powered rifles that have been shortened from their standardized length. An example of a rifle carbine is the K98 Mauser(23.62 Inches), which is a shortened version of the G98 Mauser (29.1 Inches). The length that is considered standard in measuring the size of rifles is rather subjective. But usually, around 20 inches is considered as the rifle length.
Pistol Carbines are fully stocked weapons that use pistol cartridges, and sometimes even pistol magazines. An early example of Pistol Carbines is the C96 Broom handle Mauser. A recent example would be the CX4 Storm designed by Beretta.
The stocks of pistol carbines have increased stability, and thus they also provide the user with higher accuracy. They also have long barrels that use pistol cartridges.
Intermediate Carbines have intermediate cartridges. Intermediate cartridges are between pistol cartridge and rifle cartridge. An early example of intermediate cartridges would be the M1 Carbine, and the STG 44. Modern examples would be the AK47 and M16.
Intermediate cartridges have replaced rifles, rifle carbines and pistol carbines in warfare. This is because they provide a better balance of range, accuracy, power and weight.
Advantages of Carbines
The advantages of Carbines are elaborated below.
In comparison to other firearms, particularly rifles, carbines are much lighter in weight. This is because they have a shorter barrel, are more compact, and have a lighter stock. As a result, carbines are much easier to carry, and are preferred by many shooters because of their lightweight.
Carbines have collapsible stocks. This allows the user of the weapon to alter the specification and traits of the firearm to meet their specific and unique needs.
It is also easier to pack carbines because of their collapsible stocks. Also due to their collapsible stocks, shooters only need to adjust the position of the rifle instead of their body when it comes to making the ideal shot.
Efficient in tight quarters
Carbines are very effective for shooting in places where the space is tight and inadequate. This is because of the shorter barrels of carbines. This is why carbines are used in hunting in short range areas, and when confronting enemies one-on-one.
The recoil of carbines is much less than that of other firearms. This is because of their very compact shape and short barrels. As a result of less recoil, it is easier to maneuver the weapon.
Disadvantages of Carbines
Carbines come with disadvantages too. Here are few of the disadvantages you are likely to face.
Carbines are ineffective in large, open spaces. Any form of confrontation in large open spaces yields a major disadvantage to carbine users.
Carbines have less power due to their shorter barrels. Shorter barrel means less momentum. As a result, the power generated by the ammunition is relatively low, and it is also difficult to control the direction of the bullet upon shooting.
Bullets also have reduced velocity that ultimately results in low wounding power.
Carbines already put shooters at a disadvantage against enemies or rivals in large, open spaces due to their short range. Besides that, carbines also have increased muzzle flashes that make it very easy for opponents to detect them in large spaces.
Carbine vs Rifle
Rifles, as we have already discussed previously in this article, have longer barrels than carbines. This longer barrel results in the rifles having a much greater range than carbines.
That is why, in wide open spaces, such as warfare, the range of rifles is much more effective than that of carbines. Rifles also have a longer musket as compared to carbines.
Carbines are more effective in close range shooting and places where the space is inadequate. This is why carbines are used in hunting in short range areas, and when confronting aggressors. The inability to shoot at longer ranges is the prime con of carbines.
Weight of The Weapon
Since carbines have shorter barrels, their overall weight is much less than that of rifles. Carbines are very compact. Most shooters have a preference for lightweight firearms: because lightweight firearms are much easier to carry. The change in weight doesn’t significantly impact the functionality of the firearm. They are also easy to handle.
As rifles are less compact and heavier to carry, their weight becomes a burden to shooters. The weight of the firearm is an important criterion to assess before making the decision whether to purchase a rifle or a carbine.
-There are also differences between the stocks of rifles and carbines.
The stock is the back of the firearm that is held against the shoulder of the user before shooting the gun. The stock provides stability to the user, and also enhances the accuracy of the firearm. Stocks also help to sustain recoil experienced by the body due to the shooting of the gun.
The stocks of carbine rifles are adjustable or collapsible. Users can alter the stock of the firearm and adjust it to their preference. Packaging firearms with collapsing stocks is much more convenient.
For rifles, the stocks are non-adjustable. This would require shooters to have extensive expertise in order to make a perfect shot. Also, to make an ideal shot, you have to adjust your body, instead of adjusting the position of the firearm.
The stocks of rifles are also heavier than that of carbines. This results in rifles being heavier than carbines.
Since rifles have longer barrels, they have better accuracy than carbines. It is only because of the short barrel size that the accuracy and precision become an issue for shorter barrels.
This happens because when the bullet leaves a barrel, the momentum of the bullet, and the user’s control of the direction of the bullet depends on the size of the barrel. Since, carbines have shorter barrels, they have less momentum. As the bullets stay in the barrel for a shorter period, it is relatively harder to control the direction.
For rifles, the barrel is longer, and thus it offers greater momentum, and greater accuracy and control over direction.
In the battle of Carbine vs Rifle, this article gives us a very elaborate analysis into both carbines and rifles. Carbines are basically modified rifles that have been created for short ranged combats and easy handling.
Their differences are rather nuanced, and one must experience using them before completely understanding the uniqueness of the weapons.
But, when choosing which one to buy, it is imperative for the user to properly assess their own specifications first before coming to a purchase decision. Inability to properly use a firearm can make things go from bad to worse in a matter of seconds. So proper analysis must be done before purchasing.